After initiation, the child regularly visits the hospital outpatient clinic where they are seen by the dietitian and neurologist, and various tests and examinations are performed. These are held every three months for the first year and then every six months thereafter. Infants under one year old are seen more frequently, with the initial visit held after just two to four weeks.[9] A period of minor adjustments is necessary to ensure consistent ketosis is maintained and to better adapt the meal plans to the patient. This fine-tuning is typically done over the telephone with the hospital dietitian[19] and includes changing the number of calories, altering the ketogenic ratio, or adding some MCT or coconut oils to a classic diet.[18] Urinary ketone levels are checked daily to detect whether ketosis has been achieved and to confirm that the patient is following the diet, though the level of ketones does not correlate with an anticonvulsant effect.[19] This is performed using ketone test strips containing nitroprusside, which change colour from buff-pink to maroon in the presence of acetoacetate (one of the three ketone bodies).[45]
Thank you for such a wonderful informative article. You give everyone all this knowledge for free & people still want more. Give me printable versions of food list & protein charts. Come on people do a little leg work yourself, show some initiative. If you can’t your not going to be disciplined enough to make this diet work. There are links above to get free meal plans & more keto info. I’ve lost 60 lbs in 10 months & changed my life. My single best piece of advise? Buy a good keto info & recipe book. Key word in last sentence is “GOOD”. Hard copy for instant reference. Worth its weight in gold.
The ketogenic diet is the go-to diet for people who are looking to lose weight, lower cholesterol and blood pressure, lower their risk of metabolic disorders like type-2 diabetes, and even boost brain health (1, 2, 3, 4). But, if you are a beginner, the thought of completely turning your kitchen upside down and training your body to eat in a completely different way may seem overwhelming.  
Sunnye thank you so much for your kind words and support! That's what I love about low-carb eating because I don't feel hungry and I always have energy even if I eat just twice a day 😊 The best way to keep all these guides without having to print them would be to buy my app. even without internet connection you'll have access to these and more through the KetoDiet Guide section and the KetoDiet Blog section (in this section it only needs to sync once). I hope this helps!
Diyeta ay hindi bago. Ito ay talagang ginagamit para sa mga dekada bilang isang paggamot para sa mga batang may epilepsy na ang mga seizures ay hindi tumutugon sa gamot. Nakikita mo, ipinakita ng mga pag-aaral na ang keto diyeta ay epektibo para sa pagbawas ng mga seizure. Dahil dito, naniniwala ang mga mananaliksik na maaari ring magkaroon ng positibong benepisyo para sa iba pang mga kondisyon ng neurological, tulad ng autism, Alzheimer's, Parkinson, maraming sclerosis, traumatiko na pinsala sa utak, at mga tumor sa utak.
In the absence of glucose, which is normally used by cells as a quick source of energy, the body starts to burn fat and produces ketone bodies instead (it’s why the keto diet is often referred to as the ketone diet). Once ketone levels in the blood rise to a certain point, you enter into a state of ketosis — which usually results in quick and consistent weight loss until you reach a healthy, stable body weight. See this keto diet review, a before and after trying keto for 30 days.
Kung kailangan naming pakainin ang 9.8 bilyon na tao sa pamamagitan ng 2050, ang pagkain mula sa karagatan ay kailangang maglaro ng isang pangunahing papel. Ang pagtatapos ng gutom at malnutrisyon habang natutugunan ang pangangailangan para sa higit na karne at isda habang lumalaki ang mundo ay nangangailangan ng 60 na mas maraming pagkain sa kalagitnaan ng siglo.
Hindi mahalaga sa iyong katawan kung ang taba na ito ay nasusunog ay mula sa iyong umiiral na mga reserba o mula sa mataas na taba pagkain na iyong kinain. At ang produksyon ng ketones ay hindi nangangahulugan na ikaw ay nasusunog na taba ng katawan. Kaya kapag keto dieters magdagdag ng taba sa kanilang pagkain sa pamamagitan ng hindi dinaraan ng bala coffee o langis ng niyog, ito ay sinunog bilang gasolina sa halip na taba ng katawan - na nagtatalo sa bagay ng diyeta na nakamit ang pagbaba ng timbang.
When you approach your normal body weight, the weight loss will slow. Just remember, a “normal” body weight differs from person to person depending on our genetics and environmental exposures and may not fit what we see in the popular media. The weight loss won’t go on forever. As long as you follow the advice to eat when you are hungry, you will eventually stabilize your weight.

Kung magkano ang taba dapat kong kumain ng bawat araw sa isang 1200 calorie diyeta


A one-ounce (28-gram) serving of olives contains 2 grams of total carbs and 1 gram of fiber. This works out to a net carb count of 1 gram for 7–10 olives, depending on their size. If you don’t like olives or don’t want the net carbs they contain, then olive oil is a great option as well. Although you won’t get all of the benefits of olives by consuming olive oil, you will still get plenty of healthy fats and health-promoting compounds.
Bilang karagdagan sa mga benepisyo sa pagbaba ng timbang, ang katibayan ay nagpapahiwatig na ang keto diyeta ay maaaring makatulong na maiwasan o mapabuti ang mga kondisyon tulad ng metabolic diseases, epilepsy, at kanser. Ang pagkain ng tamang halo ng taba at carbs ay mahalaga para sa ketosis. Ngunit maaari itong maging nakakalito upang kumain ng perpektong balanse ng mga pagkain, lalo na kapag nagsisimula lamang. Dapat mong tandaan na ang keto dieters ay nag-ulat ng mga epekto tulad ng masamang hininga, panandaliang pagkapagod, hindi pagkakatulog, at mga isyu sa pagtunaw.
The ketogenic diet is indicated as an adjunctive (additional) treatment in children and young people with drug-resistant epilepsy.[26][27] It is approved by national clinical guidelines in Scotland,[27] England, and Wales[26] and reimbursed by nearly all US insurance companies.[28] Children with a focal lesion (a single point of brain abnormality causing the epilepsy) who would make suitable candidates for surgery are more likely to become seizure-free with surgery than with the ketogenic diet.[9][29] About a third of epilepsy centres that offer the ketogenic diet also offer a dietary therapy to adults. Some clinicians consider the two less restrictive dietary variants—the low glycaemic index treatment and the modified Atkins diet—to be more appropriate for adolescents and adults.[9] A liquid form of the ketogenic diet is particularly easy to prepare for, and well tolerated by, infants on formula and children who are tube-fed.[5][30]
Hi Kelly, All packaged foods will have a nutrition label that list the macros per serving, including fat, protein and cabrohydrates. Net carbs, which is what most people look at for low carb and keto, are total carbs (the amount on the label) minus fiber and sugar alcohols, as explained in the article above. I have a low carb food list here that gives you a full list of all the foods you can eat, and the net carbs in each. You can also sign up above to be notified about the meal plans, which are a great way to get started.
Alkatone Keto is another form of weight loss pill which also help in burning fat into energy by inducing exogenous ketones into the body. These pills include BHB as the major ingredient along with others and help to lose weight quickly. But there are certain side effects of these pills such as insomnia, headache, fatigue, dizziness, high blood pressure and others. However, these side effects are very rare to happen, and you can go for these pills to have a slim belly without any worry.
Choose those products using natural ingredients and no chemical compounds. This will help you get rid of the side effects. On the other hand, the natural ingredient helps in healthy weight loss gradually but steadily. Some additional efforts like taking exercise and going for a workout can give you a quick result. Some natural components can minimize side effects and maximize ketosis of your body.

If you’re looking to get a jump start on your health and fitness goals this year, you may be thinking about trying the ketogenic diet. Maybe you’ve heard the phrase before — it’s a huge diet buzzword — but aren’t sure what it means. Here’s a primer: The ketogenic diet is an eating plan that drives your body into ketosis, a state where the body uses fat as a primary fuel source (instead of carbohydrates), says Stacey Mattinson, RDN, who is based in Austin, Texas. 

Kung mayroon kang mababang hanggang katamtaman na pandiyeta sa paggamit ng protina, ang pagkuha ng kasein na protina ay maaaring palakasin ang kalamnan paglago sa pamamagitan lamang ng pagtaas ng iyong paggamit ng protina. Bukod pa rito, tinutulungan ng casein na protektahan ang pangmatagalan ng kalamnan, sa pamamagitan ng pagbabawas ng breakdown ng protina sa gabi at sa mga pinalawig na panahon nang walang pagkain. Ito ay partikular na epektibo kapag kinuha sa gabi, dahil ito ay tumutulong sa panatilihin ang iyong mga kalamnan fed sa panahon ng pahinga.

Ano ang pinakamababang carb pasta maaari kang bumili


There are a few companies marketing and selling other products with a similar name to this brand like keto pure shark tank and pure Keto slim. This is why buying the Keto pure bottles from the manufacturer’s website (ketopurediet.com) or an authentic source (approved by the manufacturer) is always advisable. The money back guarantee is applicable only when you buy from an authentic source.  You must be careful while buying these products from the other sources. Be cautious from the fake and duplicate products. These can give many side effects and health complications. You can lose your health and money too.       

Ay almond gatas Keto friendly na


Bumalik tayo sa 1028, ang taon na ipinanganak si William the Conqueror. Malusog ang karamihan sa kanyang buhay, naging labis siya sa sobrang timbang sa mga nagdaang taon na nagpunta siya sa isang likidong pagkain na halos walang anuman kundi alak. Nawala siya ng sapat na timbang upang ipagpatuloy ang pagsakay sa kanyang mahal na kabayo, ngunit isang aksidente sa pagsakay sa madaling panahon ay humantong sa kanyang walang kamatayang kamatayan.
Today we are sharing this extensive Keto Food List and FREE printable Keto Grocery List. If you scroll down to the bottom, you will find links to purchase some keto food products that you may have a hard time finding in your local grocery store. When I first started keto, I had a hard time figuring out what I could and couldn’t eat, which is why I decided to create this huge list for you!

carbohidratos y Dieta keto


Sa pamamagitan ng pagdaragdag ng karagdagang taba sa diyeta, ang iyong balanse sa enerhiya ay mananatiling positibo anuman ang gasolina (karbohidrat, taba o protina) at ito ay magtataguyod ng timbang na nakuha, tulad ng ipinakita ng mga bata sa mga ketogenic diet kapag nakakuha sila ng timbang sa kabila ng katunayan na ang kanilang ihi nagpapakita na sila ay paggawa ng ketones.

keto diyeta fiber


Surprised you can have hummus? After all, chickpeas are rich in carbs. But in small amounts, used as a “flavoring,” hummus can fit in a keto diet, says Kendra Whitmire, RD, a nutritionist in Laguna Beach, California, who practices functional and therapeutic nutrition and works with clients on the keto diet. Keep it to a tablespoon and dip in a half cup of bell pepper strips.
The ketogenic diet is a mainstream dietary therapy that was developed to reproduce the success and remove the limitations of the non-mainstream use of fasting to treat epilepsy.[Note 2] Although popular in the 1920s and '30s, it was largely abandoned in favour of new anticonvulsant drugs.[1] Most individuals with epilepsy can successfully control their seizures with medication. However, 20–30% fail to achieve such control despite trying a number of different drugs.[9] For this group, and for children in particular, the diet has once again found a role in epilepsy management.[1][10]
Mga pinakamabuting kalagayan Nutrisyon Gold Standard 100% kasein ay isang simpleng ngunit mataas na epektibong suplemento tunay na nagtatakda ng pamantayan para sa kalidad sa isang mataas na mapagkumpitensya industriya. Sa 24g ng dalisay na protina ng kasein sa bawat paghahatid, 100% Casein ay isang mahusay na produkto na maghatid sa iyo ng casein na gusto mo. Ang award winning na produkto ay gumagamit ng pinakamataas na sangkap ng kalidad na posible at walang iba pa

The Mediterranean diet is most famous for its benefit to heart health, decreasing the risk of heart disease by, in part, lowering levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol, and reducing mortality from cardiovascular conditions. It’s also been credited with a lower likelihood of certain cancers, like breast cancer, as well as conditions like Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. (1)
Early studies reported high success rates; in one study in 1925, 60% of patients became seizure-free, and another 35% of patients had a 50% reduction in seizure frequency. These studies generally examined a cohort of patients recently treated by the physician (a retrospective study) and selected patients who had successfully maintained the dietary restrictions. However, these studies are difficult to compare to modern trials. One reason is that these older trials suffered from selection bias, as they excluded patients who were unable to start or maintain the diet and thereby selected from patients who would generate better results. In an attempt to control for this bias, modern study design prefers a prospective cohort (the patients in the study are chosen before therapy begins) in which the results are presented for all patients regardless of whether they started or completed the treatment (known as intent-to-treat analysis).[19]

keto diyeta panuntunan


Is féidir leat tús a chur le 16 uair an chloig go tapa nó ar chóir a ithe ach amháin le haghaidh 8 uair an chloig in aghaidh an lae . I gcodarsnacht leis an troscadh de Ramadan , fasting OCD fós cheadaítear uisce a ól ach gan bainne nó deochanna milse eile . Is féidir leat a shonrú freisin a gcuid ama féin chun tús OCD ach bricfeasta a sheachaint . Ar a laghad 3 uair an chloig tar éis dúiseacht bia nua a ithe.
This diet is perfect for everyone, but it is not a one-size-fits-all kind of plan. You can’t simply add the foods to your cart go home and eat all you like. You have to know your goals, macros, and have a menu plan. Thankfully, we can help you with all of that. This list was created to give you a starting point, but only you know what will work for you. If you have insulin resistance, you should wait until you reach your goals to incorporate fruits. If you eat 50 grams of carbs a day and are in maintenance mode, you can eat more than the person who is in induction. Please be thoughtful when commenting, especially on other people’s questions or comments. We are all in a different place, and we should be helping each other succeed.
Sa isang modernong diyeta, kumakain kami ng maraming pagkain na hindi mabuti para sa amin. Dahil sa kaginhawahan ng paghahanda ng mga pagkaing naproseso, kumakain kami ng maraming hindi malusog na taba at sa paggawa nito tayo ay talagang nagdudulot ng maraming mga problema sa ating kalusugan. Ang pagkain ay maaaring direktang nakaugnay sa maraming iba't ibang mga sakit. Samakatuwid, mahalaga na panoorin natin kung ano ang kinakain natin at kung paano natin ito kinakain.  

Ano ang mga unang palatandaan ng isang tiyan ulser


Milk (only small amounts of raw, full-fat milk is allowed). Milk is not recommended for several reasons. Firstly, all the dairy products, milk is difficult to digest, as it lacks the "good" bacteria (eliminated through pasteurization) and may even contain hormones. Secondly, it is quite high in carbs (4-5 grams of carbs per 100 ml). For coffee and tea, replace milk with cream in reasonable amounts. You may have a small amount of raw milk but be aware of the extra carbs. Lastly, farmers in the United States use genetically engineered bovine growth hormone (rBGH). rBGH is injected to dairy cows to increase milk production. Opt for full-fat dairy labeled “NO rBGH”.
“Eggs have a lot of vitamins like vitamin A, B complex, D, K, E, calcium, and zinc,” says Ryan Weaver, a personal trainer and keto enthusiast. “That’s why eggs are an excellent choice for breakfast when you follow the keto diet. To avoid getting bored, you can try different ways of preparing the eggs—boiled, fried, or baked. Also, you can combine the eggs with different foods like bacon, ham, cheddar cheese, butter, mayonnaise, so you get a different recipe each day although using the same main ingredient.”
The brain is composed of a network of neurons that transmit signals by propagating nerve impulses. The propagation of this impulse from one neuron to another is typically controlled by neurotransmitters, though there are also electrical pathways between some neurons. Neurotransmitters can inhibit impulse firing (primarily done by γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA) or they can excite the neuron into firing (primarily done by glutamate). A neuron that releases inhibitory neurotransmitters from its terminals is called an inhibitory neuron, while one that releases excitatory neurotransmitters is an excitatory neuron. When the normal balance between inhibition and excitation is significantly disrupted in all or part of the brain, a seizure can occur. The GABA system is an important target for anticonvulsant drugs, since seizures may be discouraged by increasing GABA synthesis, decreasing its breakdown, or enhancing its effect on neurons.[7]

Whats masamang tungkol keto diyeta


Ang sobrang low-calorie diets ay nagpapadali upang mabawi ang timbang pagkatapos ng pagkain ay tapos na. Kung ang isang taong may pinabagal na pagsunog ng pagkain sa katawan ay pinupuntirya ang kanilang target na timbang at ipagdiriwang sa pamamagitan ng pagkain ng parehong halaga ng pang-araw-araw na calories ang isang tao na may isang tipikal na RMR at ang kanilang parehong timbang at edad ay kumain, maaari silang makakuha ng timbang nang mabilis.
Ang KetoDiet ay nangangako na ang lahat ng nutritional data nito ay napatunayan (hindi gumagamit ng user) upang tulungan kang gumawa ng mga pinakamahusay na pagpipilian para sa iyong mga pagkain. Bilang karagdagan sa isang library ng mga recipe, tinutulungan ka ng app na gumawa ng mga seleksyon ng smart na pagkain na may mga tampok tulad ng pag-scan ng barcode at mga pagpipilian sa pagkain sa restaurant. Ang sobrang kapansin-pansin ay maaari ka ring magtakda ng mga limitasyon para sa iyong mga layunin sa paggamit ng karbohid, subaybayan ang iyong pag-unlad, at pag-sync sa mga device. Bisitahin ang ketodietapp. com upang makahanap ng higit pang suporta at mga recipe sa blog, pati na rin ang mga hamon ng motivational.
Ketoburn and KetoLogic do provide electrolytes in supplement form, but my gripe (beyond messing with your body’s biochemistry to the point of increasing your heart rate for no reason): Ketologic is $100 per container, Ketoburn is $40 per container, and the predominant electrolyte you’re getting in each is sodium. That means you’re literally spending up to 100 times more money than you would if you went to the supermarket and picked up a container of sodium chloride, a.k.a. table salt. It’s about $1, max.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.[1] The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy.
The ketone bodies are possibly anticonvulsant; in animal models, acetoacetate and acetone protect against seizures. The ketogenic diet results in adaptive changes to brain energy metabolism that increase the energy reserves; ketone bodies are a more efficient fuel than glucose, and the number of mitochondria is increased. This may help the neurons to remain stable in the face of increased energy demand during a seizure, and may confer a neuroprotective effect.[56]
Kumusta! Ako’y 50 at talagang gusto kong magbawas ng timbang. Alam ko na sa aking edad mahirap ngunit patuloy kong sinusubukan. Nagpasya akong subukan ito at nag-order ng Keto Guru. Sa ilang linggo naglagay ako ng order, kamangha-mangha ang epekto! Nagbawas ako ng 6 na kilo!!!! Tiyak, kumain din ako ng masusustansiyang mga pagkain at sinubukang mag-ehersisyo ngunit hindi ko pa rin kailanman inasahan ang ganitong mga resulta. Salamat sa artikulo. Inirerekomenda ko din ang Keto Guru sa lahat.

keto diyeta listahan


In most instances, we eat because its meal time or it has been several hours since we last ate. Some experts recommend eating when you are hungry, stop when you are already full, and simply enjoy every mouthful. However, for you to get to that desired ‘keto’ state, you must keep track and count carbs and calories in order to get the hang of what is in your food and what you are putting into your body. So without further ado, here are five keto diet apps that will help you monitor your progress and discover new delectable recipes.

Sinusuportahan ba keto pagkain sanhi ng buhok pagkawala


Maaari kang gumawa ng pang-araw-araw na pagkain at ibahin ang mga ito sa masasarap na superfoods sa bahay sa iyong kusina na may kaunting pagsisikap at halos walang pera! Lamang sa pamamagitan ng fermenting pagkain, ikaw ay makabuluhang dumami ang kanilang mga ari-arian sa pagbuo ng kalusugan. Ang mga pagkain sa araw-araw na tulad ng yogurt at sauerkraut ay simula lamang ng kung ano ang posible.
What’s really commendable about the Keto Diet app is that it will allow you to track all the foods you eat on a daily basis. You can easily monitor your calorie intake and many other facets of your diet. The app is not just about shedding off your excess pounds; it’s a tool that will help you in your bid to adopt a healthier lifestyle. Aside from restricting your carbohydrate intake, you’ll learn why it’s imperative to follow a whole foods based approach and incorporate healthy fat sources in your daily diet. 
Ang Casein ay epektibo para sa pagpapasigla ng pagtubo ng kalamnan, kapag isinama sa lakas ng pagsasanay. Naglalaman ito ng lahat ng mahahalagang amino acids, kabilang ang mataas na konsentrasyon ng leucine - na kung saan ay susi para sa synthesis ng protina ng kalamnan. Ang leucine ay itinuturing na isang trigger para sa anabolic process-building ng kalamnan.

Ay peanut butter masamang para sa kolesterol


Sa paligid ng 3 milyong mga indibidwal na nagdurusa mula sa plantar fasciitis Sakit ng sakong Kaki Sakit sa paa Spurs Masikip na tendon Stiffness Mga palatandaan ng isang mahabang araw, suot ang maling sapatos, pareho o maaari kang magkaroon ng isang kondisyon na kilala bilang plantar fasciitis. Hindi namin sineseryoso ang aming kalusugan hanggang sa dumaan kami sa sobrang sakit o ilang anyo ng [...]

Maaari lupus makaapekto sa iyong lalamunan


Alamin kung paano lutuin ilang bagong mga paborito ng mababang karbala sa pamamagitan ng pagsunod kasama ang mga video na ito ng recipe. Ang app ay makakatulong sa maiangkop ang isang plano sa pagkain sa iyong mga partikular na pangangailangan batay sa impormasyon tulad ng iyong taas, edad, timbang, kasarian, at index ng mass ng katawan. Ang mga plano sa pagkain ay magpapaalala rin sa iyo kung nakikita mo ang iyong mga layunin sa macronutrient o hindi. Hinahayaan ka ng pro plan na mag-customize ka ng karagdagang para sa mga partikular na pangangailangan sa pandiyeta, tulad ng vegan o allergy-friendly na menu.

Sa pamamagitan ng pagdaragdag ng karagdagang taba sa diyeta, ang iyong balanse sa enerhiya ay mananatiling positibo anuman ang gasolina (karbohidrat, taba o protina) at ito ay magtataguyod ng timbang na nakuha, tulad ng ipinakita ng mga bata sa mga ketogenic diet kapag nakakuha sila ng timbang sa kabila ng katunayan na ang kanilang ihi nagpapakita na sila ay paggawa ng ketones.


Looking for simple and tasty keto (very low-carb) recipes? You’ve come to the right place. We have an arsenal of marvelous recipes to browse — over 300! They are high in fat, low in carb and ketolicious — just how you like it! Start a free trial for further access to all our keto meal plans, the amazing meal planner tool and all keto cooking videos.

Sigurado cucumber Keto friendly na


The Standard Ketogenic Diet (SKD) appears to be the most researched particularly with regard to its ability to help people lose weight and control blood sugar. It typically comprises 70-75% fat, 20% protein and 5-10% carbs. When following a ketogenic diet be sure to include plenty of non-starchy vegetables, like kale and spinach which are very low in carbohydrate. 

keto pagkain Griyego yogurt


Reduced Risk of High Cholesterol and Triglycerides. (8) Many doctors originally thought that a diet high in fat might increase cholesterol and triglycerides. However, the opposite has turned out to be the case. Most people see a significant drop in their LDL and triglycerides when on a keto diet, although a small percentage of people do see the opposite effect.

As you can see I changed my net Carbs amount from 20 for a few days to then 10 and as you can also see I went over my carbs on many days. It’s a wake up call for me and I definitely need to work on it every day. In my personal opinion this is the only keto diet app I’ll be needing or using from now on. There just aren’t many keto diet apps that are trustworthy in my experience. The Ketodiet App takes the guess work out of the equation for a low carb keto diet. You’ll eat real food, lose body fat and feel great! I’ve greatly reduced my cravings for carbs by going keto. You’ll feel fuller for longer and feel completely satiated. Did you read about my 6 week results I recently posted? Check it out my post, Low Carb versus Keto Diet and my results with pictures!
Ang Casein ay epektibo para sa pagpapasigla ng pagtubo ng kalamnan, kapag isinama sa lakas ng pagsasanay. Naglalaman ito ng lahat ng mahahalagang amino acids, kabilang ang mataas na konsentrasyon ng leucine - na kung saan ay susi para sa synthesis ng protina ng kalamnan. Ang leucine ay itinuturing na isang trigger para sa anabolic process-building ng kalamnan.

Ano ang antas ng ALT ay mapanganib

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